A History of Pool in the USA
Following centuries of Billiards dominated by England and France, during the 19th century a third country became obsessed with the sport of cues and balls. Billiard tables had been appearing in all the colonies from the 1600s but Americans were particularly keen. As with other aspects of American life, Billiards culture became a mish-mash of the cultures of the immigrant populations. Americans played early Port and King Billiards, held English Billiards competitions, indulged in Pin Billiards from Italy and, in contrast to Britain and its empire, imported Carambole tables without pockets from France.
Early American Billiards development
The oldest Billiards games played in the USA were One-Pocket and Four-Ball Billiards. One-Pocket, is the earliest game, a description of the game was recorded in 1775 – complete rules for a British form appeared in 1869 showing that the return trip across the Atlantic for the various games of Pool probably also started with One Pocket.
Until the 1870’s, though, most Americans would have played American Four-Ball Billiards, which was played on an English Billiards sized table (12′ x 6′) with only 4 pockets and four balls – two white and two red. It was played like English Billiards by aiming to pocket balls, go in-off (scratch) or by making canons which were called ‘caroms’.
Americans had taken to playing mainly two new forms by the late 1870’s – Straight Rail and Fifteen-Ball Pool. Straight Rail was the American name for the French and European game, Carombole, played on the French Carombole tables without pockets and is the forerunner of all American ‘Carom Billiards‘ games. Conversely, American ‘Fifteen-Ball Pool‘ or ‘Sixty-one Pool‘ is the predecessor of all modern ‘Pool‘ games, being played on a table with pockets and based upon the the game of Pyramid from England, an ancestor of Snooker.
The term ‘Carom’ should, of course, not be confused with the much more ancient and equally popular Indian table game, Carrom or Karum. Beware also of the the ambiguity of the American usage of the term ‘Billiards‘ – see the note at the end of the early Billiards history page for an explanation.
Carom Billiard games, particularly Balkline, dominated the American public eye until 1919, when Ralph Greenleaf’s pool playing captured the nation’s attention. Through the 1930’s, both Pool and Carom Billiards, particularly three-cushion billiards, shared the spotlight. For more information on the development of Carom Billiards, see the Carombole page.
Development of Pool in the USA
American Fifteen-Ball Pool or “Sixty-one Pool” is the predecessor of all modern ‘Pocket Billiards‘ games. It was played with 15 object balls as in the English game Pyramid, but crucially, the balls are numbered 1 through 15. For sinking a ball, the player received a number of points equal to the value of the ball. The sum of the ball values in a rack is 120, so the first player who received more than half the total, or 61 , was the winner. The word “pool” means a collective bet and became a term for the game when it began to be played in 19th century “pool rooms” which were then places for betting on horse.races.
Continuous Pool replaced Fifteen-Ball Pool as the championship game when, in 1888, it was thought more fair to count the number of balls pocketed by a player and not their numerical value . Thus, the player who sank the last ball of a rack would break the next rack and his point total would be kept “continuously” from one rack to the next.
Eight-Ball Pool was invented shortly after 1900 and is one of the most widely played of all Billiards games today.
Straight Pool followed in 1910. Also known as 14.1 Continuous. The object is to pot 14 of the 15 balls one after the other and in any order leaving just one ball whereupon all the others are racked up and the break continues. One point is scored for each ball potted.
Nine-Ball Pool seems to have developed around 1920. This game is now more popular in Europe particularly in Sweden and Germany. Balls one to nine are racked up in a diamond with the nine ball in the middle and the one ball nearest the baulk line. Each shot must always hit the lowest numbered ball on the table first and then pocket a ball or make two balls reach a cushion. If this isn’t achieved, it is a foul and the balls are re-racked for the opponent to play.
The World Pool–Billiards Association, which controls the various Pool (American Pocket Billiards) games, is one of the primary members of the The World Confederation of Billiard Sports along with The World Snooker Federation and Union Mondiale de Billard. There is some information about it on the the BCA site.
A wide range of activities will be held across Da Nang from late this year until early next year to mark 20 years since the city’s recognition as a centrally-governed city on 1 January 1997. These activities will be jointly organised by the 25 local government departments and agencies.
Specifically mentioned is a grand meeting at the Tien Son Sports Arena and a workshop entitled ‘Da Nang: 20 Years of Construction, Development and Future Orientations’, both to be held on 31 December.
In addition, between 24 and 31 December, there will be an exhibition at the Hoang Sa Exhibition House featuring photos and documents relating to Viet Nam’s sovereignty over the Hoang Sa (Paracel) archipelago. Also, a photo exhibition themed ‘Da Nang – The Age of 20’ will be held from 24 December 2016 to 2 January 2017 at the western end of the Rong (Dragon) Bridge, opposite the Museum of Cham Sculpture.
Cultural and sporting events will be included in the opening ceremony of the Da Nang Book Street on 24 December, a motorcycle and sports bicycle parade will take place along major streets on 30 December, street parades of flower-decorated vehicles on the evenings of 31 December 2016 and 1 January 2017, the Da Nang Cultural and Cuisine Festival between 1 and 7 January 2017 at the Da Nang Port, and an awards ceremony on 15 January for a video clip-making contest entitled ‘Da Nang – Impressive Moments’.
At midnight on 31 December 2016, a spectacular fireworks display will be set off on the beach near the East Sea Park.
Two special musical performances to welcome in New Year 2017 and to celebrate the 20th anniversary will be broadcast live on both the DRT and VTV8 channels at 7.30pm on 29 December. The New Year Countdown Party 2017 will be held from 7.30pm on 31 December at the 29 March Square on 2 September Street.
In addition, there will be various events for local young people and children. Included will be the ‘Da Nang in My Heart’ drawing competition for children, and the ‘Da Nang’s Youth Aspiration’ singing contest and a contest entitled ‘Da Nang-People-Time’ for senior high school pupils to learn about the glorious history of the city.
Also to mark the anniversary, 20 local citizens will be honoured in recognition of their remarkable achievements towards the city’s progress.
Most notably, the DA NANG Newspaper is running a city-level reportage-writing contest entitled ‘Da Nang – 20 Years of Innovation’ which is open to all amateur and professional reporters from across the country. Each entry must be printed journalistic reportage, with a total word count of between 1,500 and 2,500. At least 3 high-quality photos must be attached to each entry. Entries are required to be sent to the Da Nang Newspaper offices at 42 Tran Phu or via the newspaper’s email address before 31 December. The awards ceremony will be held in January 2017. A ‘Da Nang: 20 Years of Construction and Development’ book is also expected to be released by the newspaper in January 2017.